The Lesser Key of Solomon (Grimoire)

The Lesser Key is one of the best-known grimoires, primarily for the first section, the Goetia, which features charming descriptions of the 72 demons conjured by Solomon, along with illustrations of their sigils, and the tools required for summoning.

Although the content varies from edition to edition, The lesser Key is generally considered to contain five books:

  • Goetia, a list of 72 evil spirits, or demons, and instructions for their invocation (source).
  • Theurgia Goetia, a list of spirits that are "by nature good and evill That is, one part is good, and the other part Evill" (Robert Turner translation). It bears notable similarity to Trithemius' Steganographia (source).
  • Ars Paulina, which describes the magic attributed to the Apostle Paul. This is taken from the second book of Steganographia (source).
  • Ars Almadel, which describes the construction and use of an alter for summoning angels (source).
  • Ars Notoria, or the notary art, describes Solomon's communication with God. It is the oldest material in this grimoire, and dates back to the 13th century, or possibly earlier (source).

The grimoires Book of Incantations Book of Treasure Spirits excerpts this grimoire.

The grimoire The Book of Spirits influenced this grimoire.

This grimoire is in the tradition of Solomon

This grimoire mentions the demon Amaymon

This grimoire partially derived from the grimoires The Archidoxes of Magic The Magical Calendar Pseudomonarchia Daemonum Heptameron Steganographia

Robert Turner translated this grimoire.

Timeline of related events


In this century: Publication of Ars Notoria (this grimoire includes Ars Notoria)




Publication of the Heptameron (this grimoire partially derived from Heptameron)



The Archidoxes of Magic written (this grimoire partially derived from The Archidoxes of Magic)


Publication of De praestigiis daemonum (this grimoire partially derived from Pseudomonarchia Daemonum)



Birth of Robert Turner (translated this grimoire)


Publication of The Magical Calendar (this grimoire partially derived from The Magical Calendar)


Publication of the Book of Treasure Spirits (excerpts this grimoire)


Death of Robert Turner (translated this grimoire)




In this decade: Book of Incantations written (excerpts this grimoire)